Effects on Sexual Organs


Chemotherapy may but does not always affect sexual organs (testis in men, vagina and ovaries in women) and functioning in both men and women. The side effects that might occur depend on the drugs used and the person's age and general health.


Men
Chemotherapy drugs may lower the number of sperm cells and reduce their ability to move. These changes can result in infertility, which may be temporary or permanent. Infertility affects a man's ability to father a child, but not a man's ability to have sexual intercourse. Other possible effects of these drugs are problems with getting or keeping an erection and damage to the chromosomes, which could lead to birth defects.

What You Can Do:
  • Before starting treatment, talk to your doctor about the possibility of sperm banking a procedure that freezes sperm for future use if infertility may be a problem. Ask about the cost of sperm banking.
  • Use birth control with your partner during treatment. Ask your doctor how long you need to use birth control.
  • Use a condom during sexual intercourse for the first 48 hours after the last dose of chemotherapy because some of the chemotherapy may end up in the sperm.
  • Ask your doctor if the chemotherapy will likely affect your ability to father a child. If so, will the effects be temporary or permanent?


Women
Effects on the ovaries. Anticancer drugs can affect the ovaries and reduce the amount of hormones they produce. Some women find that their menstrual periods become irregular or stop completely while having chemotherapy. Related side effects may be temporary or permanent.

  • Infertility. Damage to the ovaries may result in infertility, the inability to become pregnant. The infertility can be either temporary or permanent. Whether infertility occurs, and how long it lasts, depends on many factors, including the type of drug, the dosage given, and the woman's age.
  • Menopause. A woman's age and the drugs and dosages used will determine whether she experiences menopause while on chemotherapy. Chemotherapy may also cause menopause-like symptoms such as hot flashes and dry vaginal tissues. These tissue changes can make intercourse uncomfortable and can make a woman more prone to bladder and/or vaginal infections. Any infection should be treated right away. (See "Infection.") Menopause may be temporary or permanent.

    Help for hot flashes:
    • Dress in layers.
    • Avoid caffeine and alcohol.
    • Exercise.
    • Try meditation or other relaxation methods.

    Relieving Vaginal Symptoms and Preventing Infection:
    • Use a water or mineral oil-based vaginal lubricant at the time of intercourse.
    • There are products that can be used to stop vaginal dryness. Ask your pharmacist about vaginal gels that can be applied to the vagina.
    • Avoid using petroleum jelly, which is difficult for the body to get rid of and increases the risk of infection.
    • Wear cotton underwear and pantyhose with a ventilated cotton lining.
    • Avoid wearing tight slacks or shorts.
    • Ask your doctor about prescribing a vaginal cream or suppository to reduce the chances of infection.
    • Ask your doctor about using a vaginal dilator if painful intercourse continues.


    Pregnancy. Although pregnancy may be possible during chemotherapy, it still is not advisable because some anticancer drugs may cause birth defects. Doctors advise women of childbearing age, from the teens through the end of menopause, to use some method of birth control throughout their treatment, such as condoms, spermicidal agents, diaphragms or birth control pills. Birth control pills may not be appropriate for some women, such as those with breast cancer. Ask your doctor about these contraceptive options.

    If a woman is pregnant when her cancer is discovered, it may be possible to delay chemotherapy until after the baby is born. For a woman who needs treatment sooner, the possible effects of chemotherapy on the fetus need to be evaluated.



    The information on this web site is provided for general information only. It is not intended as medical advice, and should not be relied upon as a substitute for consultations with qualified health professionals who are familiar with your individual medical needs. The MSCF disclaims all obligations and liabilities for damages arising from the use or attempted use of the information, including but not limited to direct, indirect, special, and consequential damages, attorneys' and experts' fees and court costs. Any use of the information will be at the risk of the user.






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